Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Your Work Adds Value †Start Pricing It That Way

Your Work Adds Value †Start Pricing It That Way At the point when I started to ask about a cleaning administration †you know, somebody to clean my home so I could have two hours of my life back †I was stunned with the going rate. The going rate for cleaning toilets (in my general vicinity) is $80 every hour. You need clean clothing? Significantly more. This caused me to think about how specialists value their administrations, yet whether they accept they offer something of significant worth. This isnt to state cleaning professionally doesnt have the right to be paid. It sure does. Be that as it may, composing professionally is worth in any event that, dont you think? On the off chance that you look online for the going pace of independent essayists, youll be baffled. Those rates are bogus. On the off chance that you acknowledge that $30 an hour for a composing venture is reasonable, youd be in an ideal situation cleaning toilets professionally. How would you check the low charges as an expert essayist? Quality customers To begin with, acknowledge you should just acknowledge the customers who will consent to your rates. Customers must have a considerable promoting spending plan. Theres a motivation behind why cleaning administrations are commonly utilized Charge per venture Second, drop the hourly rate. When your handyman is taking a shot at an undertaking, would you say you are watching the clock and seeing $100 fly out the window consistently? Dont do that to customers. Give them a set venture expense, which corporate customers like. Dont devalue your aptitude Value your worth Third, create trust in your rates. Dont leave space for arrangement State no At last, say no more frequently. The more work you acknowledge at offending rates, that is extra work you could lose at better rates. Filter out the unfortunate, modest paying customers. Set yourself up as a specialist. Produce quality work and improve your portfolio. The greater quality customers you decide to work with, the more youll accept youre worth each penny. Understand that you will consistently be encircled

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Cherry Orchard Review Essay Example

The Cherry Orchard Review Paper Exposition on The Cherry Orchard The play The Cherry Orchard last work of the extraordinary author, AP Chekhov. He kept in touch with her, being at death's door, as though bidding farewell to adored Russia, recalling all the most significant relic of times gone by, present, and contemplating the future, about what he will desert. Diverse play legends represent the past, present and future. For instance, Ranevskaya and Guys fixated on recollections of times past, LOPAKHIN occupied flitting issues, trying to exploit all that he has right now, and Peter and Anya look a long ways ahead, paying little mind to the real occasions. So past, present and future discover their relations all through the story. Each character talks about his own, without tuning in to the next, with the outcome that there is a quietness wherein you hear the far off sound of a tragic broken string. The internal dramatization of each is a higher priority than outside occasions. It appears that the writer appears to ask perusers questions and to myself for what valid reason so absurdly squandering his life individuals? why it is so easygoing about family members? Why spend so untrustworthy words and essentialness, innocently accepting that they will live perpetually and will have the option to carry on with an existence without remedies, once more? Legends of the play and merit feel sorry for, and savage chuckling through tears imperceptible to the world. We will compose a custom paper test on The Cherry Orchard Review explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on The Cherry Orchard Review explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on The Cherry Orchard Review explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer AP. Chekhov has made an equivocal work, the discussion about the class that exists right up 'til today. While taking a shot at the play Chekhov talked about her character all in all, came out I don't have the dramatization and satire, at times even joke and communicated his disappointment with the general understanding of the play: Why on banners and in paper advertisements my play so relentlessly called the show? Nemirovich Alexeyev (Stanislavsky) to see my play emphatically not what I composed, and Im ready to give anything a word that them two had not painstakingly perused my play . Its opportunity to go! In the manner! - with these words leave the house, bolting the entryways. There stays just the old Firs, which is by all accounts all dealt with, yet whom and neglected to send to the emergency clinic. Fiers, moaning that Leonid went to the coat, instead of in a fur garment, lets go lie still. I heard a similar sound of a breaking string. There is quietness, and just heard as distant in the nursery with a hatchet thump on wood.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

12 Creative Ways to Spice Up Your Boring Lunch Break

12 Creative Ways to Spice Up Your Boring  Lunch Break What does an average lunch break sound like to you?Munching on boring bits of white sandwich bread while you  watch  a YouTube video on  your smartphone?  Catch the latest gossip news from your work buddy on how the hottest romantic couple in your office just broke up?  Many  share this grim fate of a boring lunch  break  while making  small-talk with our coworkers.But what if we told you that your lunch hour could be just as exciting as a lavish holiday trip to an exotic location?Alright, we exaggerated the last  bit,  but we guarantee that lunch breaks don’t have to be a lonely affair.In fact, using these 12  creative ways, you’ll always look forward to your lunch hour breaks to come up with exciting things to do.12  EXCEPTIONAL LUNCH BREAK TRENDS TO FOLLOW IN THE WORKPLACE1. Mini Games with Your Co-Workers“United We Stand,  Divided  We Fall.”  That’s pretty much the motto of any team building atmosphere.Uniting your co-workers together for a round of fun games helps you connect better and makes  lunchtime  an exciting affair for everyone.Introduce your co-workers to a new way of experiencing an exciting lunch each day.Here are 3 team building games to have fun with your office mates.Truth or LiesIt’s a  spin-off  of  the much popular “Truth or Dare” but instead of being bold you just ask fun questions to your office mates and watch as they spill out the beans.To play the game,  first,  invite all interested colleagues to form a circle over  at  the lunch table and while they are munching on their food explain the rules which are as below.Each participant will say a short story  no  longer than  50-words  and not exceeding  30 secondsOnce the story is completed, the rest of the table needs to guess if the story was true or  a  lieEach person gets one chance and those who guess correctly get a point eachAfter tallying exactly who got the most points at the end of the lunch breakThe winner is namedIf the game gets popular, consider adding a smal l prize like a free snack or lunch for the winnerThis game gets people talking and chatting and especially  invites the  shy  coworkers  who never  talk  due to fear of social anxiety  to participate in the fun.This way you can entertain everyone in the office while boosting the morale of your office mates.Name the Song TrackIf your office mates love music, then this game is sure to strike  their  creative chords. The rules of this game are simpleUsing your smartphone’s speaker, play a song from a random genre and see if anyone guesses the song.The first person to guess the song right gets a pointRemember to pay attention to when they shout out the name of the correct song to judge the winnerYou can play the sample track for 4-to-6 seconds for the best way to keep them guessingWith this game, you’ll have a wide understanding of the various music tastes of your office mates.Don’t reuse songs from the same genre and instead spread out various genres like pop, synth, metal, tran ce, jazz, DB, etc.To spice up the fun, you can even create teams of 3-5 members.The Mannequin  This popular social-media challenge went viral and was the craze  of the internet.The basic concept was to remain motionless in a position mimicking the posture of a mannequin.Instead of  filming  the entire office, be the host and tell them that the moment you yell out the word “MANNEQUIN”, everyone must remain motionless and even a slight hint of movement disqualifies the person.Perform the game each time until there is only one participant remaining who will be adjudged the winner of the mannequin challenge.This game is  extremely fun  and will bring out the creative side out of your colleagues.Watch as you find yourself laughing uncontrollably when you catch one of your office mates in a strange pose while they get  disqualified in hilarious ways.2.  Commit to a “NoTech  During  Lunch-Break”  Policy  Since the turn of the  21st  century, our minds have been occupied with all so rts of wacky gadgets that  are  stuffed in our pockets.In fact, it’s gotten to the point where we don’t leave these shiny devices even when we enter the loo. While they are an important part of our lifestyle and  supplement  our careers in meaningful ways, it’s important to put a stop to this tech addiction.The best place to begin is during lunch  at work.Adopt a strict moral code and promise yourself that you’ll never use any device with a shiny screen  during your breaks.We mean no music, no staring down to take  a  quick peek at the latest news or checking  emails.Lunchtime  will be a sacred space that you connect your soul with the food that you eat. If you feel like multi-tasking while you chew bits of nutrition down, bring a book  along with you. Reading provides us with greater concentration skills.Here are some pointers to help you end your  addictive  date with your smart devices â€"Switch off your phone and put it inside your desk’s drawer. Notifications tend to distract us, and we usually ferry our phones with us to our  lunchroomRemember to  practice discipline during lunch. Restrict yourself from playing games or even listening to music. Just listen to the chaos of your natural environmentKeep 5 minutes to phone management tasks post your lunch. With self-control on the usage of your smart devices, you’ll learn to unwind and relax much easier throughout the day.Our brains are wired to answer any call upon seeing our phone screen light up. Ensure you keep your phone on silent mode even while working, this motivates  you to have a silent lunch without distractionsRefraining ourselves from using technology helps us resist the  addiction  to our devices.It’s often good to take note that these devices were made to assist us  and not take over our lives.By following your rules, you can spread the positive message to a colleague or two and help them see the difference  of  a normal  verbal  conversation  instead of a texted one.3. Learning a Foreign LanguageWait! An ENTIRE LANGUAGE course during lunch? That’s….just…impossible…While these are your very thoughts upon reading the title, let’s elaborate further on how this feat is achievable.By learning a language, we don’t mean you’ll become a linguistic genius at French within a month’s time or achieve native proficiency in  Spanish in  no time.According to the FSI, (The US Foreign Service Institute)  it takes an individual roughly 480 hours  of learning time  to be affiliated with basic fluency of any of the Group 1 languages such as French, Portuguese, Romanian, Italian, Spanish, etc.Basic fluency of a language means  being  able to communicate with locals and  gather  any information that you may desire without the need of hiring a translator.Keeping this in mind, let’s look at the time required â€" 480 hours. Let’s say you’ve got 45 minutes to an hour  every  day  for your lunch break.You’ll roughly need 2 years to reach basic fluency in the language that you desire by committing to it.And just how do you do it?Simply by listening to an audio podcast or by reading a beginner’s language tutorial book.You could also carry a dictionary that translates words from English to your preferred foreign language.This way you can challenge yourself to learn 10 new words at lunch every day.That’s about 60 new words in a week and around 240 words a month summing to around 3000 words a year. The little numbers surely add up over time.Another cool way to learn the language is by listening to songs and practicing pronouncing the words as they sound.You can play foreign songs during your lunch break and note down certain words, eventually,  challenge yourself to translate an entire song into English in a single week.These short challenges will give you clarity over the language.The next time you hear these words spoken, you’ll have no problems identifying the language without outside help.This is especially useful if you travel a l ot during your holidays.Let’s say you’re  traveling  on  a trip to Spain and would like to know basic words on how to communicate with the locals.Simply create a list of  high-frequency  words in English that you’ll be using during your trip.For example â€" Hello, Thanks, Where, Train, Flight, Pub, Lodging, Transport, Currency, Left, Right, Straight, Back etc.Now, during your lunch break, simply translate these words into their respective local words and you’ll have a much easier time during your holiday trip to communicate with the locals and  you’ll  feel smarter to have  learned  all of these during your boring lunch break. 4.  Reading News or Articles About Your Job RoleBeing informed is a key trait if you want to be at your career best.Simple bits of information available on the internet reveal ample job opportunities and provide insight  into  improving your job role for your company.All this can be done while  having  your  lunch, every single day.For example, by cl icking this article you’ve just found yourself ways to spice up your boring lunch break, so you’ll never have to simply munch food and have  a staring contest with your phone all the time.By reading this, you were able to acquire information on how to distract yourself and learning a new thing or two.Similarly, by reading news related to your job field, you’ll gain plenty of resources and tools which you weren’t aware of  to  ease your daily tasks.Let’s say you are a digital marketing specialist.By learning the existence of an app such as  Mail Chimp, you’ve just  learned  a new way in reducing your workload when it comes to organizing your mailing list.Likewise, if you had  learned  about  Idio, you’d have a much easier time interacting with your social media audience.For every new tool or news, you learn relating to your profession, you absorb knowledge and become much smarter.You’ll be at the forefront of updated trends and be the person in the office that everyon e turns to for advice.Being reliable gains you the attention of your superiors and you’ll be a valuable worker for your company.This puts you in a position to gain advancements in your career and accept role responsibilities. You’ll also be bumped up the salary ranks.All these free perks just because you decided to change up your lunch habits and gain wisdom in learning something new for your profession.5.  Creating a “To-do” ListNow,  this might sound simple, but it’s surprising just how many people refuse to organize their lives and usually end up procrastinating their daily chores.Now imagine if there was a magic yellow pad that just  reminded you of all the pending tasks that you wanted  to  get  done.By the time you get home, you’re in no mood to sit down on your desk and create a high priority/low priority list, you just want some relaxing time for yourself and if only there was a way you could somehow squeeze this during your work hours.That’s when the lights st art to shine brightly in your head. Of course,  the  lunchtime!Your  lunch  break  is a great way to spend time writing down all the tasks that you’ve kept away. Here is all the stuff you can do with your notepad and pen.Create a priority-based list. High priority tasks go on top, low priority  goes  down.Create a bucket list of all the things you want to do before  you  dieCreate a travel list to ensure you don’t forget to pack the all-important sunscreen or woolen gloves.Create a networking list. Ensure you find time to communicate with all your colleagues and important clients.Create a performance sheet. Find out why you’ve been  lagging behind  other star performers by listing your personal flaws.Create a chore list. Remember to clean your home or work desk.Create a shopping list. For products that you absolutely need for your home.There’s just about a list for everything to go by and you’ll have a fun time coming up with new lists to organize your daily life.Always ca tegorize your lists and don’t just put them into one messy  long  list.Once you’ve got all the lists, go ahead and break down each high priority task into milestones to achieve them easier.Remember to use short forms and get to the point when creating lists such as “Reserve Movie tickets” or “Buy Milk”.Don’t unnecessarily elongate words. Lists need to be simple to read and easier for you to absorb the information instantly. 6.  Schedule  a Shopping Trip  Don’t mistake  us  when we say the term “Shopping trip”.A  lunch break isn’t an excuse to splurge your  hard-earned  money  at the mall.What we do mean is you can ideally pick up your monthly groceries or have a relaxing time at the spa to rejuvenate those tired nerves and sore eyes.You could also have  a  fun time with a colleague munching a bite or two at the food court.By shopping during your lunch break,  you’ll skip  the rush hour and enjoy a peaceful time shopping from the aisles.You’ll also get some fresh air when you leave the office and get some much-needed walking done.In fact, we suggest window shopping if you’re on a tight budget for the month.It doesn’t cost a cent, but it surely excites you to know the new and upcoming trends that you’ll be splurging your upcoming salary on.Going to a mall for lunch also breaks the monotonous routine of having your lunch at the same office cafeteria every day.You’ll feel refreshed just knowing that you’ve taken a small little adventure during your office hours.7. Headout  for a Stroll at a Nearby Park  According to a team of researchers at the British Journal of Sports Medicine, a simple stroll through a park depletes built up mental fatigue of employees.The constant stress  and the noise from your office  usually  cause  us all to reach our breaking point.Hence, it’s a good idea to schedule having lunch at a park bench while admiring the whistling sounds of birds amidst nature.According to another  study in 2016, the body ac tivates its restorative conditions when its away from urbanization.A walk on the beach, a stroll through the park, or a simple  day out in the mountains is considered to activate your  healing process.The study also says the healing powers are higher when there isn’t any use of tech devices such as smartphones or tablets as these keep our mind connected to our workflow.Do your  brain  a favor and give it  some much-needed  rest during a lunch break, you’ll notice that you’ll  reduce  work-based  anxiety levels  and deal with mood disorders much better than your colleagues who spend their lunch break in the office.8. DIY ProjectsDo-it-yourself projects are a great way to get creative and introduce yourself with fun backyard projects.We’ve listed some DIY projects that you can complete in less than an hour or by the end of your lunch break.Not only will you be looking forward to your lunch break every day to create something new,  but  you’ll also find an interactive hobby a nd impress your work colleagues into following you.So, without further ado, here are some projects to keep yourself busy with during lunch.Non-wax Candle MakingScented candles are aromatic and fill your home with various and subtle fragrances.Creating candles at work isn’t hard and you’ll easily create  2-3  candles  every  day  at work.The different flavors include rosemary, citronella, peppermint, lavender, lemongrass, etc.Traditionally, candles are usually made with wax but since we want to make a faster non-wax version of scented candles, we’ll introduce you to  citrus candle making.First, we need a citrus fruit. Orange, Tangerine, or Sweet Lime will do.Cut the fruit in 2 equal halves at the centerGently remove the fruit pulp, leaving only the center portion intactYou can eat the pulp as part of your lunch break dietPour olive oil into the outer shell and the central portion of the fruitThe central root portion will serve as the wick of the candleOnce you’ve placed the o live oil and layered the shell with itThe candle is ready to be lit and it will give out an aromatic citrus smellTo get a detailed pictorial guide on how to create it,  click this link.Pencil VaseIf you love flowers, we will show you how to create a vase out of pencils. All you need are:About  20  pencilsA  ribbonA piece of string coilA plastic holderAlign all the pencils around the outer portion of a round plastic holder.Using the string tie the pencils around the circumference of the plastic holder so you get a  nice  rounded shape with all the pencils sticking together.Now tie a bright piece of ribbon across the pencils and Voila! Your flower vase is complete.You can experiment with various designs and you can create this self-made pencil vase with less than $5-dollars’ worth  of items. For a detailed picture guide, you can refer  to  HomeTalk.Illuminating LED Plastic BottlesOne of the best ways to recycle plastic water bottles is by converting them into art pieces for your hom e. This DIY project can be done in less than 45 minutes and you’ll be creating various designs once you get the gist of it.CRAZY DIY Science  has a video here to demonstrate how easily you can create your own DIY lamps using nothing but a plain water bottle or plastic bottle, a few wires, a needle, and a headlamp.The Mastermind  uses water bottles to create a vivid blinking effect that can be done during your lunch break with simple tools.Many of these lamp-based lights can also be sold on sites like Etsy, eBay, Amazon and other popular shopping sites for a profit.9. Volunteer and Brighten Someone’s DayImagine bringing a smile to someone’s face  every  day  of your life without having to postpone your work. Your  lunch  break  can be put to better use after you’ve had your quick meal.Head out to a nearby community center in the vicinity and sign up for  30-minutes of  volunteer service.This could mean distributing food to the homeless, teaching basic language skills to the h omeless, initiating them with the programs and their rights by holding a 30-minute speech, or also be a role model to a college student and provide them with  much-needed  tips.If there are no community centers in your vicinity, get a community group going in your office and get as many volunteers as you can.Simply removing the trash off the streets in your immediate vicinity will help keep the streets clean and you can also initiate an environment drive for people on the disadvantages of littering.You can begin to save the planet one street at a time just during your lunch break.Your efforts will surely strike a chord with your office superiors and they will recognize you for your sincere environmental efforts and will also pledge in keeping the planet green and plastic free.There are tons of ways for you to volunteer in just 30 minutes to make a difference for your city and the planet. 10. Karaoke with Your FriendsIf you consider yourself a singing genius, then grab a few colleagu es from work and head on over to a karaoke bar near you.Find out the timings of all the local bars hosting karaoke around your  workplace  and make sure to signup beforehand with the local DJ. This way you’ll waste no time in having to wait for your turn.If you want to move it up one notch, you can start a music band with your office colleagues.All you need is to rent a studio space nearby and you can practice  musical  instruments  with your office mates. If everything moves according to plan, consider auditioning your band with local music events after work.Your lunch hour can be  the  beginning  of a new creative career for you.Many bars understand the requirements for professionals  to unwind during a stressful afternoon and host various musical events such as karaoke and other talent shows.Check up your local events  guide  to understand just how you can be a part of  them.11. Lunch RouletteA “Lunch Roulette” is where you exchange your lunch boxes with a random colleague every day and this opens various conversational topics among your fellow coworkers.This is a great  icebreaker  when you’ve just joined a new company and would like to get to know your fellow employees better.Simply introduce yourself and ask if they are willing to exchange their lunchbox with yours.At first, you’ll be treated to surprised looks but soon people would be willing to try, you’ll have a great time understanding your food habits and how similar or unique people are.This is especially useful to get shy coworkers to open themselves up and create a professional bond.The “Lunch Roulette” is also a great way to try out different delicacies but pay special attention to individuals that are particular about the food they eat like people that eat only vegetarian food.You’ll need to be sensitive to their food choices and exchange only if they are willing to.12. Work Out a SweatHitting the gym during your lunch hour allows you to work up a sweat and disperse  all the m ental fatigue. For this,  enroll at a  nearby gym and bring your workout clothes.Ensure, you have your meal post your workout to ensure your nutrition is better absorbed after  physical  activity.All gyms have showers, so you’ll be back to the office looking fresh as  daisies  and  your colleagues will  be  surprised  at your  youthful glow  and slim physique.Here are some ideas on how to dispense 30 minutes of  lunchtime  in the gym.30 minutes of intense rowing30 minutes of stationary biking30 minutes on the treadmill30 minute of  high-intensity  interval training30 minutes of light weight training30 minutes of aerobic workout30 minutes of  CrossFit  trainingYou can also use a combination by splitting 2 exercises of the above into 15-minute intervals for a  change.The advantage of hitting the gym  during  your  lunchtime  is that you’ll have the entire day to yourself while saving time.BONUS: GET YOURSELF A POWER NAP TO RECHARGE YOURSELF  Power Napping is a term used where we s leep for a short period of time just enough to gain instant revitalization. Power napping  allows us to recover our energy  to get rid of fatigue temporarily.The benefits of  a  power nap include â€"Increases our overall alertness and productivityImproves memory and wakefulnessPrevents mental fatigue from building upBoosts overall testosteroneElevates our overall moodGetting a power nap during our lunch break is a great way to double your overall energy in just 30 minutes.To  nap successfully,  keep your alarm at a count of 20-to-25 minutes from the time you close your eyes.This ensures you don’t enter deep sleep and wake up feeling groggy which is also known as “Sleep Inertia”.A power nap is often a great way to catch a nap when we haven’t had a  quality sleep  the night before.Research has shown that people that gain upwards of 6 minutes to 30 minutes of power nap perform functions better than someone who  is suffering from fatigue.The study shows that the brain of a power napper has increased activity when compared to that of a tired person.Hence, sometimes the best thing to do during your lunch break is to bring your eye masks and get in some quality  shut-eye  to ensure you don’t feel tired the rest of the day.Here’s a video of Dr. Oz explaining the benefits of a power nap and the right way to do it. FINAL THOUGHTS ON LUNCH TIME CREATIVITYWhile many people prefer to open their lunch boxes and browse through their favorite Netflix shows, you’ll  have  creative  things  planned during  a simple 30-to-40-minute lunch break.Being extra creative with your lunch breaks allows you to get more stuff done than just having  your meal.At the end of the day, you’ll need to take the first step in trying out the many methods listed here before you find out  what works best for you.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Politics and the Political System of the Ancient Maya

The Mayan civilization flourished in the rainforests of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, reaching its apex around A.D. 700–900 before falling into a swift and somewhat mysterious decline. The Maya were expert astronomers and traders: they were also literate with a complicated language and their own books. Like other civilizations, the Maya had rulers and a ruling class, and their political structure was complex. Their kings were powerful and claimed to be descended from the gods and the planets. The Mayan City-States The Mayan civilization was large, powerful, and culturally complex: it is often compared to the Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Central Mexico. Unlike these other empires, however, the Maya never unified. Instead of a mighty empire ruled from one city by one set of rulers, the Maya instead had a series of city-states that only ruled the surrounding area, or some nearby vassal states if they were powerful enough. Tikal, one of the most powerful Mayan city-states, never ruled much farther than its immediate borders, although it did have vassal cities such as Dos Pilas and Copà ¡n. Each of these city-states had its own ruler. Development of Mayan Politics and Kingship The Mayan culture began around 1800 B.C. in the lowlands of the Yucatan and southern Mexico. For centuries, their culture slowly advanced, but as of yet, they had no concept of kings or royal families. It wasnt until the middle to late preclassic periods (300 B.C. or so) that evidence of kings began to appear at certain Mayan sites. The founding king of Tikals first royal dynasty, Yax Ehb Xook, lived sometime in the Preclassic period. By A.D. 300, kings were common, and the Maya began building stelae to honor them: large, stylized stone statues that describe the king, or Ahau, and his accomplishments. The Mayan Kings The Mayan kings claimed descent from the gods and planets, laying claim to a quasi-divine status, somewhere between humans and gods. As such, they lived between two worlds, and wielding â€Å"divine† power was part of their duties. The kings and royal family had important roles at public ceremonies, such as the ball games. They channeled their connection to the gods through sacrifices (of their own blood, of captives, etc.), dance, spiritual trances, and hallucinogenic enemas. Succession was usually patrilineal, but not always. Occasionally, queens ruled when no suitable male of the royal line was available or of age. All kings had numbers that placed them in order from the founder of the dynasty. Unfortunately, this number is not always recorded in the king’s glyphs on stone carvings, resulting on unclear histories of dynastic succession. Life of a Mayan King A Mayan king was groomed from birth to rule. A prince had to pass through many different initiations and rites. As a young man, he had his first bloodletting at the age of five or six. As a young man, he was expected to fight and lead battles and skirmishes against rival tribes. Capturing prisoners, particularly high-ranking ones, was important. When the prince finally became king, the elaborate ceremony included sitting on a jaguar pelt in an elaborate headdress of colorful feathers and seashells, holding a scepter. As king, he was supreme head of the military and was expected to fight and participate in any armed conflicts entered into by his city-state. He also had to participate in many religious rituals, as he was a conduit between humans and the gods. Kings were allowed to take multiple wives. Mayan Palaces Palaces are found at all of the major Mayan sites. These buildings were located in the heart of the city, near the pyramids and temples so important to Maya life. In some cases, the palaces were very large, multistoried structures, which may indicate that a complicated bureaucracy was in place to rule the kingdom. The palaces were homes to the king and the royal family. Many of the king’s tasks and duties were carried out not in the temples but in the palace itself. These events might have included feasts, celebrations, diplomatic occasions, and receiving tribute from vassal states. Classic-Era Mayan Political Structure By the time the Maya reached their Classic Era, they had a well-developed political system. Renowned archaeologist Joyce Marcus believes that by the Late Classic era, the Maya had a four-tiered political hierarchy. At the top were the king and his administration in major cities like Tikal, Palenque, or Calakmul. These kings would be immortalized on stelae, their great deeds recorded forever. Following the main city were a small group of vassal city-states, with lesser nobility or a relative of the Ahau in charge: these rulers did not merit stelae. After that were affiliated villages, large enough to have rudimentary religious buildings and ruled by minor nobility. The fourth tier consisted of hamlets, which were all or mostly residential and devoted to agriculture. Contact with Other City-States Although the Maya were never a unified empire like the Incas or Aztecs, the city-states nevertheless had much contact. This contact facilitated cultural exchange, making the Maya much more unified culturally than politically. Trade was common. The Maya traded in prestige items like obsidian, gold, feathers, and jade. They also traded in food items, particularly in later eras as the major cities grew too large to support their population. Warfare was also common: skirmishes to take slaves and victims for sacrifice were common, and all-out wars not unheard of. Tikal was defeated by rival Calakmul in 562, causing a century-long hiatus in its power before it reached its former glory once again. The powerful city of Teotihuacan, just north of present-day Mexico City, wielded great influence on the Mayan world and even replaced the ruling family of Tikal in favor of one more friendly to their city. Politics and the Decline of the Maya The Classic Era was the height of the Mayan civilization culturally, politically, and militarily. Between A.D. 700 and 900, however, the Maya civilization began a swift and irreversible decline. The reasons the Mayan society fell are still a mystery, but theories abound. As the Maya civilization grew, warfare between city-states grew as well: entire cities were attacked, defeated, and destroyed. The ruling class grew as well, placing a strain on the working classes, which may have resulted in civil strife. Food became a problem for some Maya cities as the population grew. When trade could no longer make up the differences, hungry citizens may have revolted or fled. The Mayan rulers might have avoided some of these calamities. Source McKillop, Heather. The Ancient Maya: New Perspectives. Reprint edition, W. W. Norton Company, July 17, 2006.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Childhood Depression And Its Effects On Women - 845 Words

Depression is more prevalent, and suicides are more common for women across the world (Koshy, 2016); India, is no exception. Lifetime depression is estimated at 5-12% for men, but significantly higher for women at 10-25% (Bohra, Srivastava, Bhatia, 2015). Women are not only more prone to depression and suicide because of hormonal changes, but also social stigma and pressures, as well as events that are exclusive to women (Bose, 2015). Events such as childbirth and expectations in marriage provide many possible opportunities to develop depression. With marriage, comes domestic violence, a common precursor to depression. According to the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (Bohra, Srivastava, Bhatia, 2015), domestic violence affects a fourth to half of women in India during a point in their lifetime. In addition, most women who develop depression usually develop symptoms around childbearing age. Divorced or widowed women, however, have higher rates of depression than married women. Unfortun ately, although the majority of cases of depression are treatable, there are limited resources within the country. Finding treatment for mental illness is difficult in India. According to Huffington Post, â€Å"Nearly half of those with severe mental disease aren t treated and of those with less severe versions, nearly 9 in 10 go uncared for† (Koshy, 2016). The government of India recorded that 1 in 5 people in the country need some form of psychological or psychiatric counseling, yet it isShow MoreRelatedLong Term Effects of Childhood Separation Anxiety1230 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Long-Term Effects of Childhood Separation Anxiety Abstract This report delves into the connection between childhood separation anxiety disorder and the long-term implications that it may have. To understand the connections I preformed secondary research through â€Å"Academic Search Complete†. I found that childhood separation anxiety disorder is connected with serious mental disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, social phobias, depression, and behavior disorders. Many studies have shown that childhoodRead MoreEssay about A Study Of Depression And Relationships1172 Words   |  5 Pages A Study of Depression and Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of our population and many aspects of an individuals mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pietromonaco, and Kenneth JaffeRead MoreThere Are Many Different Forms Of Child Sexual Abuse. Sexual1436 Words   |  6 Pagesperpetrated by a relative or a stranger. 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Alcohol use during pregnancy may be associated with extremely detrimental effects for the developing fetusRead More The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse Essay1190 Words   |  5 Pagesit back to his childhood, but maybe he should. The short-term effects of childhood sexual abuse have been proven valid, but now the question is, do the long-term effects of childhood se xual abuse affect middle-aged adults? Many contradicting views arise from the subject of childhood sexual abuse. Researchers and psychologists argue on this issue. Childhood sexual abuse has the possibility to damage a child physically, emotionally, and behaviorally for the rest of his or her childhood, and the affectsRead MoreSuicide Is A Major Issue Today s Modern Society1283 Words   |  6 PagesSuicide is a major issue in today’s modern society. Many problems, such as depression, trauma, issues from childhood, drug/alcohol abuse, or other mental illnesses can cause people to commit suicide. 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Nurture871 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstand the effects of genes on an individual, the mediated effects of the environment are also taken into consideration. A major argument in the field of genetics is the nature vs. nurture debate regarding the role of genes and the environment that constitute the fate of an individual. Some research has found support for sex differences in depression accounted by differences in inheritance of depression, a benefit from twi n studies (Rice, Harold, Thapar, 2002). If depression runs in the biologicalRead MoreMaternal Depression in Women and Its Effect on the Family1097 Words   |  4 PagesMaternal Depression Depression is a prevalent issue among women. Approximately 25% of women in will have a major depressive disorder at least once in their lifetime and 15% of the female population will experience post-partum depression. (Women and Mental Illness, 2003) With these numbers, it is obvious that maternal depression has profound effect on the Canadian family. Mother have the most influence in a childs life, since they generally more involved in raising the children then men are. InRead MoreNegative Impact Of Postpartum Depression1413 Words   |  6 Pagesof Postpartum Depression on Child Abuse Introduction: This psychological and behavioral study will analyze the impact of postpartum depression on women and the problem of child abuse related to this condition. Case studies find the circumstances of postpartum depression in women is directly related to the issue of previous child abuse and PTSD that have a negative impact on the newborn child. These factors define a significant correlation with postpartum depression in 1 out 9 women and later problems

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Symbolism of the Island Free Essays

The Island Major Joe Ridge View High School English 1 Mrs. Walker December 17, 2012 There are many different symbols in the book Lord of the Flies. Some of the symbols represent peace and some represent war. We will write a custom essay sample on Symbolism of the Island or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some of the characters themselves represent different symbols. The item of symbolism that stood out the most was the island itself. The island itself is an excellent item of symbolism because it uses the boys themselves to convey what it stands for thus almost making itself seem alive. The island represents peace, atavism, the struggle to hang on to civilization, life, and the struggle to hang on to humanity. The island itself stands for peace. It shows this through Simon. The special place in the jungle where Simon went shows the peaceful part of the island. There is not much of it but it is there hidden by all of the confusion other factors at work. â€Å"He came to a last place where more sunshine fell. Since they had not so far to go for light the creepers had woven a great mat that hung at the side of an open space in the jungle; for here a patch of rock came close to the surface and would not allow more than little plants and ferns to grow. The whole space was walled with dark aromatic bushes, and was a bowl of heat and light. A great Tree, fallen across one corner, leaned against the trees that still stood and rapid climber flaunted red and yellow sprays right to the top† (Golding 56). Simon found that place peaceful and beautiful. He goes there in the middle of the night just to escape the atavistic character of the island itself which is portrayed through the forest and Jack. The island also shows atavism through the forest and through Jack. Throughout the story the boys continued referring back to creepers â€Å"I can’t hardly move with all these creeper things† (Golding 7). Creepers are like vines that climb up tree trunks and grow across open patches of ground. They cover up the trees and ground and make it hard for the tree or the ground to get sunlight or water. The vines take the water from the trees so that they can survive in the conditions of the island. Jack and his hunters do similarly the same thing with the pigs. The boys engulf the pig with their presence and beat it to death making it nearly impossible for them to escape the rancorous attacks and also making it nearly impossible for the pigs to breed and fill the island with wildlife and swine. The island also portrays life. For this it uses the open space that Simon found and the fire. When Simon found his special part of the island, he noticed that the creepers did not grow there allowing the fruit trees and the flowers to grow there abundantly. The fire also symbolizes the life of not only the island but the life of the boys’ morale and hope of going home again. â€Å"The fire was dead. They saw the straightaway; saw what they had really known down on the beach when the smoke of home had beckoned. The fire was out, smokeless and dead; the watchers were gone. A pile of unused fuel lay ready,† (Golding 67-68). The boys saw a ship passing by in the distance when they found out that the fire was dead. At that moment Ralph called an assembly. Jack and his hunters came from the forest with a pig. Ralph told Jack about the fire and the ship but the only thing the Jack was concentrated on was how he and his hunters managed to capture the pig. The Island also represents the struggle to hang on to civilization. The Island shows this through the scar that the plane left when it crashed. The entire island is in order with creepers and trees making an attempt to grow everywhere. The beach is sandy and the lagoon is not too far from the beach everything on the island was neat and in order. The plane crashed it left a scar that left a path of burned creepers fallen trees and overturned dirt and debris. The rocks on the island also had a role in breaking the rope of civilization. When Piggy’s glasses broke they fell on a rock after Jack smacked them off of Piggy’s face. â€Å"Ralph made a step forward and Jack smacked Piggy’s head. Piggy’s glasses flew off and tinkled on the rocks. Piggy cried out in terror: ‘My specs! ’†¦ ‘One side’s broken† (Golding 71). At that moment in the book the normal world’s idea of civilization went out of the window and Jack’s idea took over. Ralph and piggy both wanted to keep the island as civilized as possible. Piggy gave ralph the idea to blow the conch and try to call all the boys to one central location. While resting on the mountain he realized the conditions of himself and the other boys on the island: With the memory of his sometime clean self as a standard, Ralph looked them over. They were dirty, not with the spectacular dirt of boys who have fallen into mud or been brought down hard on a rainy day. Not one of them was an obvious subject for a shower, and yet—hair much too long, tangled here and there, knotted round a dead leaf or a twig; faces cleaned fairly well by the process of eating and sweating but marked in the less accessible angles with a kind of shadow; clothes, worn away, stiff like his own with sweat, put on, not for decorum or comfort but out of custom; the skin of the body, scurfy with brine— He discovered with a little fall of heart that these were to conditions he took as normal now and that he did not mind, (Golding 110). This realization from Ralph shows that he misses the rest of the world and that being shut off from the rest of the world gave him and even stronger need to try to restore civilization on the island. The island also symbolizes the struggle to hang on to the humanity of the island. Before the boys came to island the pigs had no real enemy that was known. The boys were the same way. When the boys were luckily landed on the island the pig’s predator became Jack and his hunters. It was easy for Jack to find his first pig but not as easy for him to kill it. The second time he carried out his task. As the story continues Jack has to go through different procedures and tricks in order to find a pig. He painted his face, he crawled around on the ground following a pig slide and pig droppings. He ends up killing pigs almost every day for the group. The pigs adapt to Jack’s ways and try to avoid him. When Jack killed the mother sow, the amount of humanity left on the island was in question. â€Å"Rodger found a lodgment for his point and began to push till he was leaning with his whole weight. The spear moved forward inch by inch†¦ ‘Right up her ass! ’† (Golding 135). The island was the most important symbol in the book. Without the island and the natural features of it then one may not think that the island could stand for anything other than an uninhabited graveyard for an assortment of young boys. In order to really see the significance of the island one needs to look closely at the events that happen and where they happen in the book. The island talked to the reader through the characters of the story. Each character represented a different trait of the island. Jack was the fear of the island, Piggy was the gentle side, Ralph was the firm part of the island, and Simon was the peace on the island. There are many other situations like this in many other stories, one just has to pay attention and open their eyes. References Golding, W. (1954). Lord of the Flies. Salisbury, England: Faber and Faber. How to cite Symbolism of the Island, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Is sociology value free Essay Example For Students

Is sociology value free Essay Value neutrality is a term used by Weber to indicate the necessary objectivity researchers need when investigating problems in the social sciences. Weber also cautioned against the making of value judgements which coincide with the orientation or motives of the researcher. It is important to note that although Weber believed that value neutrality was the aim of research, his view was that no science is fundamentally neutral and its observational language is never independent of the way individuals see phenomena and the questions they ask about them (Morrison 1995 pp.267, 347) It is this link between the researchers theoretical stand and the methods adopted that raises the question as to whether sociology can be value free. What are the arguments for and against the possibility of value free sociology? Is the answer to be found in the design of research methods? Or is all knowledge a cultural product in that what a society defines as knowledge reflects the values of that society, therefore making value free science the aim but not the achievable goal of sociology? Indeed, is the concept of value free sociology of value itself raising the notion of there being merit in a value plus sociology? This concept of value free sociology has its roots in the ris e of positivism and the scientific method in the mid nineteenth century. Positivists believed that discovering laws of social development would create a better society. A key figure in the establishing of sociology as a respectable science was Comte (1798-1857). Comte looked at human progress and decided that there are three stages to the evolutionary growth of knowledge; Each of our leading conceptions, each branch of our knowledge, passes successively through three different theoretical conditions: the Theological or fictitious: the Metaphysical or abstract: and the Scientific or positive In the final, the positive state the mindapplies itself to the study of their laws that is, their invariable relations of succession and resemblance. (Comte 1830 The Philosophy of Sociology in Thompson 1995 p. 39-40) Comte argued that the human mind develops through these three distinct phases that were inevitable and, therefore, a fact of historical development. From the final stage, the positive in which causes are explained by scientific laws, came the movement known as positivist. Positivism came to be associated with progress and social reform. All disciplines had a historical imperative to develop away from the speculative to the positive stage, thus marking their scientific statue. (Morrison 1995 pp.24-25) In two key areas positivism differed from idealism: first it put great emphasis on the reliability of observation as the basis for theory, and secondly emphasis was laid on the search for factual regularities. Comte argued that this would lead to the formation of general laws. Observation became the central criterion of verification, verification to the formulation of laws, and these laws to the subject of repeated test in order to establish their legitimacy (Morrison 1995 pp.24-25) Observation requires an observer. And it is here, at the heart of the positivist method, where human observes human, that the issue of value neutrality comes to the fore. The positivist tradition concentrates on producing objective data, most often in the form of statistics. This quantative data is then subjected to analysis and causal correlations are established. An example would be Blauner (Alienation and Freedoms 1964 in McNeill 1990) It was hypothesized that different levels of alienation are causally linked with different types of industrial processes. After operationalising the concept of alienation, its presence was measured in different industrial contexts. The main priority was that there be no suspicion that the collected data had been affected by the researchers own values. It should be possible for other researchers to use the same methods and arrive at similar conclusions (McNeil1 1990 p.117-8) Developments in positivism in the twentieth century led to the belief that facts could and should be separated from values. The job of the scientist was only to identify scientific laws (McNeil1 1990 p.129) However, Weber, in his Methodology of The Social Sciences, points out that all knowledge of cultural reality. always from particular points of view. Weber also asserted that there can be no such thing as an absolutely objective scientific analysis of culture or. ..of social phenomena independent of special and one-sided viewpoints according to which.. .they are selected, analysed and organised for expository purposes (Weber 1949 pp.S1.W2) What Weber is saying is that facts cannot speak for themselves. Social facts do not exist in their own right; what counts as a social fact is greatly determined by the moral spectacles through which we view the world ( Parkin 1986 pp. 30-31) If pure social reality, perceived by emptying the mind of all presupposition, is deemed incredible, how can sociology attain to value neutrality if its methods are biased by the observers own preconception and values? The balance advocated by Weber proves to be rather limited. Although a teacher could proclaim the results of an investigation that same teacher should refrain from using this as an opportunity to disseminate his own views. Weber was of the opinion that sociologists could distinguish between empirical knowledge and value judgements (Weber in Parkin 1986 pp. Eyes Of The Dragon Essay Gouldner concluded his questions with this analysis, I fear that there are many sociologists today who, in conceiving social science to be value-free, mean widely different things, that many hold these beliefs dogmatically without having examined seriously the grounds upon which they are credible. Webers own views on the relation between values and the social sciences, and some current today are scarcely identical. If Weber insisted on the need to maintain scientific objectivity, he also warned that this was altogether different from moral indifference (Gouldner 1973 p.6) Sociologists are themselves implicated by the events in society upon which they study. Total freedom from values would therefore be impossible without the total removal of the sociologist from society itself. After the conservatism of the post-war boom years and the decline of functionalism, sociology became increasingly fragmented. Society changes quickly and sociology can often be seen as self-reflexive and the methods of understanding it need to change to keep up. Fragmented approaches to society include feminism, neo-Marxism, structuralism and postmodemism. Sociology can no longer be called a fixed discipline with these values and concepts feeding into it. Mills, in his The Sociological Imagination, critiqued functionalist and power elites. One of his conclusions has the paradox of sociology since the 1960s to be critical and thought provoking or to be quietly empirical and merely provide value-free information on what is happening in society. Of late the conception of social science I hold has not been ascendant. My conception stands opposed to social science as a set of bureaucratic techniques which inhibit inquiry by methodological pretensions, which congest such work by obscurantist conceptions (Mi1ls 1970 p. 27) Mills asks sociologists to question their methods and, importantly, why they are using those methods, what results are they aiming for? If it is to stay in favour with the powers that be, then that type of sociology can not be free from values no matter the assertions of the sociologists involved. Finally a brief look at sources and their degrees of value involvement. Primary sources, that is information produced through research, interviews observation and participant observation are some examples. Questionnaires are a common method employed to amass data. The drawbacks include the need to be very specific about the types of questions asked. People are self-conscious and interactive making asking any questions problematic. People have prejudices and can misinterpret the questions. People also tend to say what they think the interviewer wants them to say. This is an example of the Hawthorn effect. Interviews also are affected by this phenomena, and again the questions need to be very carefully structured so that the same questions can be asked of many groups of people and balanced quantifiable data extracted. These questions need to allow for interviewer bias. Participant observation requires that the researcher live among the group under study. The problem with this approach is that the researcher tends to identify with the group failing to remain sufficiently distanced. This results in the researcher taking on board the groups values and thus colouring the research. Secondary sources must be used with care. It is important to be aware of where the information comes from and to remember that some sources are more valid than others (Osborne 1996 pp. 131-7). In conclusion any sociology claiming to be entirely value free must be treated as suspect. The approach recommended by Weber is that the researcher needs to be honest about personal values and beliefs and recognise that these will come into play during the selection of the study topic, but to ensure that the methods are applied with neutrality. It is also recognised that modern sociology has become fragmented into many interest areas. This is a recognition that there is no single reality common to all that can be discovered. But if it is recognised that that the topic for research study is value relevant and that the methods applied are free from personal bias, then it can be said that this sociology is value free. This is not a total value freeness but it is relatively value free given that all the value relevant factors are accounted for. This must be balanced by the argument that sociological research is inevitably directed by values which are cultural products. Therefore the knowledge obtained is also a cultural product. So what a society defines as knowledge is a reflection of that societies values, just as another society and culture will accord other things as knowledge. Finally there is the moral issue raised by Mills, among others, of what uses the sociologists research results are put to. These are value-issues that must be considered and dealt with just as vigorously as the value issues pertaining to the generation of sociological knowledge. Bibliography:BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gouldner, A.W. (1973) For Sociology: Renewal and Critique,in Sociology Today Penguin Harmondsworth. McNeill(1990) Research Methods, Routledge London. Mills, C.W. (1970) The-sociological Imagination, Penguin Harmondsworth. Morrison, K. (1995) Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Sage London. Parkin, F. (1986) Max Weber, Routledge London. Thompson, K. (1995) Key Quotations in Sociology, Routledge London. Weber, M. (1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences, Free Press New York. 2,549 words